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Exodus 11

The last plague:  the death of the oldest child.
God tells the Israelites how to get ready for the Passover.

God told Moses that there was one last plague.  He said that after this plague, Pharaoh would let the Israelites leave. God said that Pharaoh would force them to leave.  Pharaoh would be happy for them to leave.
[1] And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.

God said the Israelites should ask the Egyptians to give them gold and silver jewelry.
[2] Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.

God made the Egyptians respect the Israelite people.  The Egyptian people and the Egyptian leaders also respected Moses.
[3] And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.

God said that He would kill the oldest (firstborn) in every family in Egypt. That included Pharaoh's oldest child, the oldest children of the workers, and the firstborn of the animals. There would be much crying in Egypt.
[4] And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:
[5] And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.
[6] And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.

The Israelites would not be crying.  All would be calm.  Even the dogs would be quiet, too. Everyone would see that God treated the Israelites different than the Egyptians. After this, the Egyptians would tell Moses to get out of Egypt. They would tell him to take all of the Israelites out, too.
[7] But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.
[8] And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.
[9] And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.
[10] And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus 12

God gives Moses instructions so that the Israelite firstborn would not die.

God said that after the people of Israel left Egypt, they  would be a new nation.  They would start a new calendar.  God said that this month would be the first month of the new calendar because it is the month when Israel became a new nation.

[1] And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
[2] This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

God said that in the tenth day of the new month, the Israelites must get a lamb. If it was a small family, they could share a lamb with a neighbor.
[3] Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:
[4] And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.

The lambs should be 1 year old.  They should be perfect (without blemish) with no scratches or marks on them. They should keep the lamb for 4 days.  On the 14th day of the month, everyone were supposed to kill their lambs at the same time.
[5] Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:
[6] And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.

The Israelites were supposed to take the blood of the lamb and put it around their doors.  They were supposed to put it on each side of the door and also on the top of the door.
[7] And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.

They were supposed to cook and eat the lamb the same night.  They were also supposed to eat special bread. The bread was unleavened, which means it did not have yeast in it to make it rise and be fluffy. It was flat.  They were also to eat herbs that tasted bitter (small plants that did not taste good). They were supposed to cook the lamb over the fire.  They were not supposed to cook the lamb in water.
[8] And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
[9] Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.

If any of the lamb was leftover in the morning, they were supposed to burn it.  They were supposed to eat it with their clothes and shoes on because they would be leaving Egypt in a hurry. 

[10] And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.
[11] And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover.


God said that he would pass through Egypt and kill all the firstborn people and animals.  But when God saw houses that had the lamb's blood on the door, He would pass over these houses.  No one in these houses would be killed.
[12] For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
[13] And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

God said that this day would be celebrated by the Israelites from now on. The special day would be called Passover. They were supposed to have a special dinner or feast at this time every year.
[14] And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.

God gave instructions for the celebration of Passover. Passover would be for 7 days.  During the 7 days, no one was supposed to eat leavened bread (bread that had risen because it had yeast in it; unleavend bread is flat). God said that if anyone ate leavened bread during the 7 days of Passover, he would be put out.
[15] Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.

God said that on the first day of Passover, there would be a special service or gathering.  On the last day, there would be a second service. On these two days, no one was supposed to work.
[16] And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.

God said that the celebration of Passover would be from the 14th to the 21st day of the 1st month every year. The Israelites did not use the same calendar as we use.  Their 1st month was not January.  Their 1st month was called Abib. It was the same time of the year as our months of March and April. Later in history, the name Abib was changed to Nisan.
[17] And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
[18] In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.

There would be no leavened bread in the houses for the 7 days.  If anyone ate leavened bread, that person would be put out.
[19] Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.
[20] Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

Moses talked to the leaders of Israel.  He told them to take a lamb and kill it.  Then they were supposed to dip some hyssop ( a plant) in the blood and paint the blood on the top of their doors and the sides of their doors.  No one could go out of his house until the next morning.
[21] Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.
[22] And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.

Moses said that God would go through Egypt that night and kill the firstborn. But if God saw the lamb's blood on the door, he would pass over that house. No one in that house would die.

[23] For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.

The Israelites would celebrate the Passover forever. They would celebrate it after they left Egypt.  When the children asked about Passover, the fathers would tell the children about the sacrifice of the lambs, the blood on the doors, and how God passed over their houses.

[24] And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.
[25] And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.
[26] And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service?
[27] That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.

The Israelites obeyed Moses. They got lambs and put the blood around their doors. 

[28] And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

The first Passover happens

That night at midnight, God killed all the firstborn in Egypt. Pharaoh's oldest son died, too.

[29] And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

There was a lot of crying in Egypt.  Every house had someone dead. Pharaoh called Moses and Aar
on. Pharaoh told them to take all of the Israelites and leave Egypt. He told them to take all of their animals, too.
[30] And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
[31] And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
[32] Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.

The Israelites leave Egypt fast.

The Egyptians wanted the Israelites to leave fast.  The Israelites hurried. Their bread was flat. It did not have time to rise.
[33] And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.
[34] And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.

The Israelites asked the Egyptians to give them a lot of jewelry, silver, and gold. The Egyptians gave them what they asked for.
[35] And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
[36] And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.

The Israelites traveled from Egypt.  The first place they stopped was Succoth.  There were many people and animals in the group. There were other people that traveled with the Israelites.  Some were Egyptians that wanted to leave Egypt. Some were from other races of people. There were about 2 million people in the group.
[37] And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.
[38] And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

They baked the unleavened bread.  That is because they left Egypt fast and there was no time for the bread to rise.
[39] And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.

Since the time that Jacob's family first went to Egypt, exactly 430 years had passed.
[40] Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
[41] And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.

Instructions for celebrating the Passover in the future

The Lord gave more instructions for celebrating the Passover in the future.
[42] It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.

No strangers were allowed to eat the Passover meal. But the servants were allowed to eat it if they had been circumcised.  
[43] And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:
[44] But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.
[45] A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.

The meal was supposed to be eaten in the house and not carried out of the house. The bones of the lamb should not be broken.
[46] In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.
[47] All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.

No one who was not circumcised could eat the Passover meal.
[48] And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.

The Israelites obeyed God and did what He told them to do.
[49] One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.
[50] Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
[51] And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

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